Offenders may become participants in rehabilitation programs during multiple points in their involvement with the criminal justice system, and programs are typically provided in conjunction with some form of sanction e. Community-based settings may be delivered in inpatient facilities such as psychiatric hospitals and outpatient treatment centers, or in supportive residential housing such as halfway houses. In addition, some rehabilitation programs such as drug courts serve as alternatives to incarceration, diverting offenders into services in the community rather than into correctional facilities. Practice Components Rehabilitation programs do not generally follow a common, well-defined treatment protocol Lipsey and Cullen
Foreword Responding to juvenile offending is a unique policy and practice challenge. This paper outlines the factors biological, psychological and social that make juvenile offenders different from adult offenders and that necessitate unique responses to juvenile crime. Although juvenile offenders are highly diverse, and this diversity should be considered in any response to juvenile crime, a number of key strategies exist in Australia to respond effectively to juvenile crime. These are described in this paper. Historically, children in criminal justice proceedings were treated much the same as adults and subject to the same criminal justice processes as adults. It is widely acknowledged today, however, both in Australia and internationally, that juveniles should be subject to a system of criminal justice that is separate from the adult system and that recognises their inexperience and immaturity. As such, juveniles are typically dealt with separately from adults and treated less harshly than their adult counterparts.
Dealing effectively with young adults while the brain is still developing is crucial for them in making successful transitions to a crime-free adulthood. The report says that research from a range of disciplines strongly supports the view that young adults are a distinct group with needs that are different both from children under 18 and adults older than 25, underpinned by the developmental maturation process that takes place in this age group. In the context of the criminal justice system this is important as young people who commit crime typically stop doing so by their mids. Those who decide no longer to commit crime can have their efforts to achieve this frustrated both by their previous involvement in the criminal justice system due to the consequences of having criminal records, and limitations in achieving financial independence due to lack of access to affordable accommodation or well-paid employment as wages and benefits are typically lower for this age group.
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